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Textension: Digitally Augmenting Document Spaces in Analog Texts


Adam James Bradley, Christopher Collins, Victor Sawal, and Sheelagh Carpendale

In this paper, we present a framework that allows people who work with analog texts to leverage the affordances of digital technology, such as data visualization, computational linguistics, and search, using any web-based mobile device with a camera. After taking a picture of a particular page or set of pages from a text or uploading an existing image, our prototype system builds an interactive digital object that automatically inserts visualizations and interactive elements into the document. Leveraging the findings of previous studies, our framework augments the reading of analog texts with digital tools, making it possible to work with texts in both a digital and analog environment.

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  • A. J. Bradley, V. Sawal, S. Carpendale, and C. Collins, “Textension: Digitally Augmenting Document Spaces in Analog Texts,” DHQ: Digital Humanities Quarterly, vol. 13, iss. 3, 2019.


    title={Textension: Digitally Augmenting Document Spaces in Analog Texts},
    author={Bradley, Adam James and Sawal, Victor and Carpendale, Sheelagh and Collins, Christopher},
    journal={DHQ: Digital Humanities Quarterly},

  • A. J. Bradley, C. Collins, V. Sawal, and S. Carpendale, “Textension: Digitally Augmenting Analog Texts Using Mobile Devices,” MobileVis Workshop at ACM CHI, 2018.


    author = {Adam James Bradley and Christopher Collins and Victor Sawal and Sheelagh Carpendale},
    title = {Textension: Digitally Augmenting Analog Texts Using Mobile Devices},
    booktitle = {MobileVis Workshop at ACM CHI},
    year = 2018,
    note = {CHI Workshop Paper}


This work was supported by NSERC Canada Research Chairs, The Canada Foundation for Innovation – Cyberinfrastructure Fund, and the Province of Ontario – Ontario Research Fund.